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Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in India
Narrowing of the coronary arteries by
atherosclerosis (fatty deposits, calcium, cholesterol and blood clots) is
known as coronary artery disease. This may be chronic and cause symptoms
such as chest pain (angina) and breathlessness on exertion; or acute,
causing acute myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Coronary artery bypass grafting restores blood flow to the heart muscle by
adding a bypass graft (vein or artery) to bypass the blocked area. This
surgery is usually done through an incision down the middle of the
breastbone, called a median sternotomy, but can occasionally be done through
an incision below the nipple on the left side, called a thoracotomy.
You may be connected to a heart lung machine (cardiopulmonary bypass) to
maintain blood flow to the rest of the body while your heart is stopped to
allow the bypass grafts to be sewn onto the coronary arteries.
Alternatively, the bypass grafts may be constructed by stabilising the heart
with special instruments while it is still functioning (beating heart
surgery). Your surgeon will decide which is the most appropriate technique
Heart Valve Surgery in India
There are four valves inside the heart
to allow blood to pass in one direction only. Occasionally these valves may
become narrowed, causing obstruction to the flow of blood (stenosis) or may
leak, allowing blood to flow backwards within the heart (insufficiency).
This affects the efficiency of the heart's function. Occasionally these
valves may be damaged by infection (endocarditis). The two most commonly
involved valves are the aortic and the mitral valves. The aortic valve will
usually be replaced. The mitral valve is frequently suitable for repair but,
if this is not possible, a replacement will be undertaken.
There are two types of replacement valves. One is a tissue valve
(bioprosthesis) made from the aortic valve of a pig or the sack around the
heart of a cow (pericardium). The other type is a mechanical valve that is
made from a very durable material called pyrolytic carbon. Your surgeon will
decide with you the type of valve that is most suited to your requirements.
It is essential to use the heart lung machine (cardiopulmonary bypass) for
heart valve surgery.
Aortic Surgery in India
The aorta is the main blood vessel that runs from the heart supplying blood
to every organ in the body. Occasionally the aorta can become diseased by
dilating or enlarging (aneurysm) or by splitting, separating into an inner
and outer layer (dissection). Surgery is then undertaken to replace the
segment of diseased aorta. The approach may be through the sternum or
through an incision in the left chest (thoracotomy). The heart lung machine
(cardiopulmonary bypass) is usually required for this type of surgery. Your
surgeon will discuss this in greater detail with you. Preparation for and
recovery is similar to that of coronary artery bypass or valve surgery.